The Port of Singapore (SGSIN) is located on the southern coast of Singapore (full name: The Republic of Singapore), at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula, on the southern shore of the Singapore Peninsula, on the southeast side of the Straits of Malacca (Straits of Malacca) in the west, and the Straits of Malacca in the south. On the north side, it is the center of the international shipping hub in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is the port for all near-ocean routes in the Far East . It is the largest transshipment port in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the largest container ports in the world, and the second busiest port in the world. Second only to Shanghai Port. The port's strategic position is very important for the main shipping route between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. It has been an international trade port since the 13th century, and has now developed into an internationally renowned re-export port. The Port of Singapore is also the political, economic, cultural and transportation center of the country. The port of Singapore is currently the largest re-export port in the Asia-Pacific region and one of the busiest container ports in the world. On average, one ship enters and exits every 12 minutes. It is known as the "world's most utilized port". The main industries are electronics and electrical appliances, oil refining and shipbuilding as the three pillar sectors. The Hong Kong's high-tech industry has developed rapidly, and it has become the world's main producer of computer disks and integrated circuits. Singapore is also the world's leading fuel supply port and the world's third largest oil refining center. In addition to the three pillars of industry, textiles, food, transportation equipment, and construction are also very developed. Singapore is also the aviation center of Europe, Asia and Pacific Oceania, and tourism is also one of the main sources of foreign exchange. Due to the lack of natural resources in its territory, the material relies on imports. The port has a tropical rainforest climate. The annual average temperature is 24 to 34 degrees Celsius. The rainy season is from October to March of the following year. The annual average rainfall is 2400mm. It is an all-day tide port with an average tidal range of 2.2 meters.
Singapore port operator: PSA
The Port of Singapore is managed by PSA International Pte Ltd (PSA International Pte Ltd), which is the second largest port management company in the world. Its predecessor was The Port of Singapore Authority (The Port of Singapore Authority) established on April 1, 1964, responsible for the management and operation of all port affairs in the Port of Singapore. On August 25, 1997, the Singapore Parliament passed a bill to reorganize the Port Authority into PSA Corporation Ltd. It began operations on September 1 of the same year. Reorganized in December 2003 and established PSA International Pte Ltd, positioning it as a "global port operating company", that is, in addition to operating the port business of Singapore, it also emphasizes its global investment and joint operations. In addition to the group’s own organization, the Port of Singapore Group has 15 companies, more than 100 subsidiaries and joint ventures. The head office and main place of business are all located in Singapore, while the subsidiaries and joint ventures are scattered at home and abroad, such as China Mainland China, Italy, Portugal, India, Yemen, the United States and Hong Kong. In terms of port and maritime business operations, Singapore International Ports Group also established "PSA Marine" (PSA Marine) to operate port and maritime businesses. The company is also headquartered in Singapore, and its main business is tugboats, water diversion, water refilling, transportation vessels, marine environmental services and maritime consulting.
- Container berths: 57
- Length of wharf (m): 17350
- Area (hectare): 700
- Maximum depth at the base of the chart (m): 18
- Dock crane: 212
- Design capacity (standard box): 40000,000
Since 1960, container transportation has gradually emerged in the world. Singapore seized the opportunity and began to vigorously build dedicated container berths. The first berth was put into operation in 1972. Through the gradual reconstruction and construction of dedicated container terminals, in conjunction with active container transfer policies, and close collaboration with government authorities and related industries, the Port of Singapore has developed rapidly and transformed into an international container transfer center in Southeast Asia. The Port of Singapore has established business contacts with more than 600 ports in 123 countries and regions in the world, and 430 liners are sent to all parts of the world every week, providing cargo owners with a variety of route options. With such a high-density and all-round liner route as a guarantee, the container that needs to be transferred will soon be transferred to the next flight to the destination when it arrives in Singapore. Most of the containers in the Port of Singapore have been stored in the port for 3-5 days, and 20% of them are stored for only one day. As a transit center for international containers, Singapore has greatly improved the overall efficiency of the global container transportation system and has become an indispensable part of the international shipping network. It is the biggest feature of Singapore's international shipping center.
In addition to shipping, Singapore also has industrial advantages in air transportation, oil refining, ship repair and construction, and it is also an important international financial and trade center. Taking advantage of these advantages, around the international transfer of containers, many additional functions and businesses have been derived, enriching and enhancing Singapore's comprehensive service functions as an international shipping center in the modern sense. International container management and leasing center. The well-developed international container transfer business has attracted many shipping companies to use Singapore as a container management and deployment base, forming an international container management and leasing service market. In many ports, it often happens that because there are not enough empty containers to provide, it can only be seen that the business is transferred to other shipping companies. However, in Singapore, a market has been formed due to container management and leasing. This kind of business loss due to lack of empty containers rarely happens. Airport intermodal transport. Air-port intermodal transportation is a value-added service jointly developed by Singapore Seaport and Singapore Airport. It refers to the cooperation and connection of sea and air transportation, and the advantages of using the two modes of transportation to meet the special needs of users. The air-port intermodal transport itself did not bring considerable container volume and revenue to Singapore, but it did meet the emergency needs of customers, greatly enhancing customers’ trust in the Port of Singapore and Singapore’s reputation as an international shipping center. In the long run, it has brought great returns to the Port of Singapore.
Repair Center Singapore Port has a 400,000-ton-class giant dry dock and two 300,000-ton dry docks. The total tonnage of ships that can be repaired at the same time exceeds 2 million tons. It is one of the largest ship repair bases in Asia. While providing maintenance services for ships, the Port of Singapore also provides integrated services for international ship replacement and repair. Ships that need to be overhauled are often loaded with cargo from other ports to Singapore. After the cargo is transferred to other ships at Singapore Port, they are repaired in Singapore nearby. This saves costs, facilitates ship owners, and brings more to Singapore’s ship repair industry. More business. International Marine Fuel Supply Center. Singapore is the world's third largest oil refining center. The world's top oil companies such as Shell, Exon Mobil, and BP all use Singapore as an oil refining and storage base. The scale effect of the industry has made the price of marine refined oil relatively low. Coupled with its location on international routes, Singapore has developed into an international marine fuel supply center. Most ships travelling to and from Europe and Asia only choose to refuel in Singapore or Rotterdam.
Port developmentThe Singapore government pays attention to the application of advanced electronic technology in the port industry, and pays attention to equipping port service projects with advanced electronic equipment. Electronic technology is widely used in port dispatch, planning, daily operations, ship entry and exit command, safe navigation, business negotiations with cargo owners and shipping companies, etc., which improves efficiency and saves a lot of labor costs.
Singapore, as an international shipping center, must integrate government functional departments, shipping companies , logistics companies, financial and legal service agencies, etc., to operate efficiently and realize the many complex functions mentioned above. This is a very difficult task, and its completion is mainly due to the application of high technology. Two electronic information systems, TRADENET and PORTNET, are mainly used to construct the information platform of the Singapore International Shipping Center. As early as 1990, Singapore invested in the establishment of TRADENET, a national EDI trade service network. This network connects all Singapore's international trade authorities to an overall system network through horizontal alliances, realizing information sharing among various departments. Through vertical integration, it has been connected to the management information systems of more than 5,000 companies to ensure the smooth flow of information. The PORTNET system is a national e-commerce system that connects the entire shipping industry, including relevant government functional departments, agencies, customs, port network, port users, etc., and gradually extends to other ports in the world. The PORTNET system has more than 7,000 users and handles an average of more than 70 million transactions per year. It can be said that it is with such an electronic information platform shared by the whole society that the function of Singapore's international shipping center can be effectively brought into play.
Singapore has signed free trade agreements with many countries in the world, including the United States, Japan, Canada, the Middle East and other countries and regions. The implementation of a free port policy is an effective means to share global free trade rights and enhance international competitiveness. Singapore’s free port policy is embodied in the implementation of free navigation and free trade, allowing free entry and exit of foreign goods and funds, and exemption of tariffs on most goods. The implementation of the free port policy greatly facilitates the circulation of goods, saves trade costs, promotes the development of container international transit services, and enhances Singapore’s international competitiveness, enabling Singapore to play a pivotal role in international shipping, trade and financial services.
Since 1996, Singapore has begun to reform its port management system to separate port management and operation functions. The establishment of the Singapore Maritime and Port Authority (MPA) is responsible for port management, the establishment of the Singapore Port Group (PSA) to be responsible for port production and operation, and the shareholding reform and privatization of PSA. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of economic globalization and internationalization, in accordance with the global supply chain management model, the port operation process is reengineered, and the development of the modern logistics industry is actively promoted. In addition, through the reform of the port system, the role of PSA will be strengthened, its port operations will be emphasized, and PSA will be granted the right to invest and operate outside the territory, and in line with the national regional development strategy, that is, in the "BRIC countries" (China, India, Russia, Brazil), the construction of foreign "airlines" "Local" industrial parks, to seize the container transportation market on a global scale.
Modern ports have been far away from the pure shipping concept and are developing towards a comprehensive logistics center. Therefore, management talents have become one of the most important aspects of port competitiveness. The Singapore government has always attached great importance to cultivating senior port management talents. Not long ago, it also decided to invest S$45 million. In addition to strengthening port facilities, the focus is on cultivating professional talents at all levels required for port operations so that the port’s management operations at all levels are coordinated , There is no disconnection. This is often overlooked by some other ports.
Singapore gives full play to the comprehensive location advantages of the port, takes advantage of the seaport’s natural depth of water, convenient transportation system and wide land resources, and at the same time uses its advantages as a material distribution center to develop its industry with a concentration of various production factors. . The Port of Singapore has become the economic center of the country. The port is not only the world's main production place for computer disks and integrated circuits, but also the oil refining industry is also very developed. It is the world's third largest oil refining center after Houston and Rotterdam. In order to meet the development of the third-generation logistics and the needs of customers, the Port of Singapore has established a logistics center at Jurong Terminal, fostering the port logistics chain, and the joint development of the port and the processing industry. Combining the construction of port parks with attracting foreign investment, some port-side land and berths are provided to multinational companies as special transit bases, and large multinational companies are encouraged to build logistics centers and distribution centers in the port area. In this way, port logistics provides professional and efficient logistics services for the port industry, improves the level of the processing industry, and in turn promotes the improvement of port operating efficiency.
Since 1996, the Port of Singapore has implemented a variety of preferential treatments for container ship shipping companies that enter the port for loading and unloading. Shipping companies that have long-term port contracts have implemented more preferential charges, or even waived port usage fees. In addition, the port has continuously improved its services, adopted electronic technology to reduce business management costs, and transferred part of its benefits to shipping companies.
Singapore Port Introduction
PSA Singapore has 57 berths distributed at the container terminals in Tanjong Pagar, Keppel, Blarney and Pasir Panjang . Pasir Panjang Terminal is the most advanced terminal of PSA. Its berth can reach 16 meters deep, and the shore crane can span 23 rows of containers to accommodate the largest container ship in the world. The terminal’s Overpass Crane (OHBC) system allows each operator to handle up to six cranes.
Joint venture terminal
- Cosco-PSA Terminal (CPT),
COSCO Pacific and PSA, the port and terminal arm of China Ocean Shipping Corporation (COSCO Group), formed Cosco-PSA Terminal Co., Ltd. (CPT), which managed and operated Pasir Panjang in 2003 Two berths at the pier. By 2008, these berths were seamlessly integrated with the rest of the PSA operation using state-of-the-art technology. CPT is PSA's first joint venture project. The customer in Singapore also marks the first attempt by a Chinese conglomerate to enter the container terminal operation business outside of Mainland China and Hong Kong.
- MSC-PSA Asia Terminal (MPAT)
officially opened in March 2006. MPAT is the second joint venture between Mediterranean Shipping (MSC)-the second largest shipping company in the world, and PSA International. The MPAT berth in Pasir Panjang is seamlessly integrated with other berths at PSA’s world-class container terminal in Singapore. MPAT can handle large ships with a capacity of more than 14,000 TEUs.
- PIL-PSA Singapore Terminals Pte Ltd (PPST)
Pacific Shipping Services (PIL) and Port of Singapore Singapore Terminals (PSA) form a joint venture to form PIL-Port of Singapore Terminals Pte Ltd (PPST), jointly managed, 2008 PPST The dedicated container terminal operated by PIL operates three container berths at the Keppel terminal, and the berths are seamlessly integrated with PSA's business. PPST is the result of many years of goodwill and strong cooperative relations between both parties at all levels, and emphasizes their common vision for strategic development and provide unparalleled value to customers.
- Asia Automotive Terminal (Singapore) (AATS)
Singapore’s first dedicated vehicle terminal. AATS began operations in January 2009. It is a joint venture of PSA, NYK and K Line . Located at Pasir Panjang Terminal, AATS operates two dedicated berths and serves as a vehicle transfer center in the area.
- Pasir Panjang Automobile Terminal (PPAT)
started operations in January 2009. It is PSA's automobile transshipment hub and Singapore's first dedicated vehicle terminal. PPAT has three dedicated parking spaces and supports an open car yard and a multi-storey parking yard, which together provide approximately 20,000 parking lots.
- Sembawang Cargo Terminal
Sembawang Cargo Terminal handles bulk and specialized cargo, including heavy machinery, steel plants and cables. Sembawang Cargo Terminal also provides long-term and short-term warehouse and open storage facilities.
As early as 2004, the construction of the third and fourth phases of Pasir Panjang Terminal (PPT) was planned to meet the future growth of container volume. The port of Singapore has always played a key role in Singapore, the region’s economic growth, and the country’s development as the cornerstone of an international shipping center. In order to maintain the attractiveness of Singapore as a global hub port, PSA will continue to invest in terminal infrastructure, equipment and technology leading the market demand, and to ensure that the port remains efficient and competitive. The expansion of the Pasir Panjang terminal will increase the total port capacity of PSA by approximately 50% to 50 million TEUs. This will further consolidate Singapore as the world's largest transshipment center. With the completion of the third and fourth phases of PPT, PSA will spend about S$3.5 billion to build the best first-class infrastructure and use the latest port technology. For example, there will be an automatic container yard and unmanned rail-mounted gantry cranes, which will be supported by intelligent systems. These functions will enable the third and fourth phases of PPT to serve the next generation of container ships, improve production efficiency, and promote environmental sustainability in port operations.