New York Port (USNYC)

Port Code USNYC City New York
Port Name NEW YORK,NY Country/Region USA NY
Category Port City Route EASTERN AMERICA
Nearby Main Port Inland Transport
Official Website Port Type Main Port

Introduction of New York Port (USNYC)


New York Harbor is a geographical term that refers to all rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries around the mouth of the Hudson River near New York City, USA. This term is often used to mean "New York and New Jersey Port " (Port of New York and New Jersey).

The Port of New York is one of the busiest ports in North America and one of the natural deep-water ports in the world. The throughput reached 160 million tons in 1980, and it has been above 100 million tons for many years. On average, more than 4,000 ships enter and leave each year. In terms of total tonnage, the port is the third largest port in the United States and the largest port on the east coast. Because New York is located on the northeast coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is the most densely populated and industrially developed area in the United States. It is also close to the world's busiest Atlantic route and is close to Europe in location. In addition, the port conditions are superior and the Erie Canal connects the Great Lakes , Making the Port of New York the most important product distribution center in the United States, thus establishing its position as an important global shipping and transportation hub and a transportation center in Europe and the United States. In the history of New York's development, the Port of New York is in the most critical position. The port not only brought a large amount of wealth and properties to New York City, but at the beginning of the 19th century and the end of the 20th century, immigrants from all over the world also entered New York City through the Port of New York, and these immigrants and their descendants became the development of New York City in the future. Main force.

The Port of New York has two main waterways. One is the Embloose Channel in the south outside the Hudson River Estuary, 16 kilometers long, 610 meters wide, and has a maintenance depth of 13.72 meters. Ships entering the port from the south or east enter the New York Bay through this channel and sail to various port areas. The other is the Long Island Strait and the East River. Ships entering the port from the north pass through this channel. The narrow channel at the mouth of the Hudson River has a water depth of more than 30 meters. The water depth of most sections of the East River channel is more than 18 meters, and the deepest part is nearly 33 meters. The port is not easy to silt up. The hinterland of New York Harbor is vast, and the highway network, railway network, inland waterway network and air transportation network are all connected in all directions. There are 14 railway lines in the New York area, of which 8 can lead to various parts of the United States, Canada and Mexico.


  • Broadly speaking, the scope of New York Harbor includes the following water bodies and their shorelines: Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay, North River (that is, the lowest part of the Hudson River), East River, Fancourt Channel, Newark Bay , Arthur Waterway, New York Bay Strait, Jamaica Bay, Raritan Bay and Harlem River.
  • This area is approximately 1,200 square miles (3,100 square kilometers) and has more than 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) of coastline. At its peak, it contained 650 miles (1,046 kilometers) of well-developed shorelines distributed in the following 11 independent and prosperous port areas: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx, Staten Island, Perth Simpson, Elizabeth, Bayan, Newark, Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken.
  • Although the U.S. Geographical Names Council has not established the term New York Harbor, it has important historical, political, economic, and ecological uses.

Port history

The Port of New York began construction by the Dutch in 1614 and was later operated by the British. After the victory of the American Revolutionary War, the Port of New York underwent large-scale construction. Due to its superior natural conditions, it became the largest port in the United States in 1800. Later, after the end of the Civil War, the United States began to expand rapidly, and its economic center gradually shifted to the north. Coupled with the rapid increase in immigrant population, New York Harbor became increasingly busy, which accelerated the development of the city; coupled with the opening of the Erie Canal, This expanded the hinterland of New York Port to the Midwest of the United States, and allowed local products to be exported from the Great Lakes through the New York Port to the world. New York has therefore become the most important distribution center for American products. By 1871, New York became the largest port city in the United States. In 1921, the New York Port Authority (now the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey) was established to be responsible for port planning and construction. New York Harbor has more than 700 square kilometers of water and more than 1,000 square kilometers of land. There are 16 major port areas in Hong Kong: 10 on the New York City side and 6 on the New Jersey side. The total length of the deep-water terminal in Hong Kong is nearly 70 kilometers, and there are more than 400 berths for ocean-going vessels with a depth of 9.14 and 12.80 meters. In the early days, a jetty-style narrow trestle wharf was built along the Hudson River, with compact layout and small land area behind. The recently constructed piers in Port Elizabeth and Newark Port are arranged along the shore and have a large land area.

Before the construction of the Erie Canal

  • In the seventeenth century, the Delaware people of the New York Harbor area were linguistically divided into the Algonquin language family, and they used this waterway to fish and travel. They welcomed the first recorded European, Henry Hudson, at the port in 1609. In 1524, "He (Giovanni Daverazzano) dropped anchor in the New York Bay Strait between Staten Island and Long Island, and was greeted by a Delaware canoe gathering. His team of sailors may be in Stein On the island, a spring called the watering place (the watering place) takes fresh water-now at the corner of Bay Street and Victory Avenue, there is a monument erected in a small park at the approximate location of this place- -However, Verrazano’s description of the area’s geography is mostly ambiguous. Historians insist that the place where Verrazano broke down is near the current landing point of the Verrazano Strait Bridge in Brooklyn. He also Observed the waters in the north that he considered to be a huge freshwater lake (obviously Upper New York Bay, also known as New York Harbor). He obviously did not go deep enough into New York Bay, so he did not discover the existence of the Hudson River."
  • The first permanent European colony was established on Governors Island in 1624, and a colony was established in Brooklyn 8 years later; the two colonies were subsequently connected by the ferry industry. The director of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands, Peter Stevenson, ordered the construction of the first pier along Manhattan on the Lower East River. The pier was protected from wind and ice. The project was completed in 1648 and was named the Schreyers' Hook Wharf (located near the present Pearl Street and Broad Street). This made New York the main port of the British colony and later became part of the newly independent United States.
  • In 1686, the British colonial authorities gave control of the shoreline of the New York Municipality.

The Erie Canal and its later period

  • In 1824, the first dry dock in the United States was built on the East River.
  • Due to its location and water depth, the port grew rapidly with the adoption of ships; then in 1825, the Erie Canal was completed, and New York became an important lighter port between the United States inland and European and coastal destinations. Around 1840, the number of passengers and large-tonnage cargo passing through the New York Port was greater than that of other major ports in the country at that time. By 1900, the New York Port had become one of the largest ports in the world. The port of immigration on Ellis Island saw 12 million immigrants arrived between 1892 and 1954.
  • In 1870, New York City established the Terminal Administration to systematically develop shoreline resources, and George B. McClellan was the first chief engineer.
  • Before the central highway was improved to increase the efficiency of truck transportation, rail goods were transported from New Jersey to Manhattan by ferry. The railroad company had only a small number of tugboats, barges and 323  train barges (a specially designed barge covered with rails, and the wagons could go directly on. barge). By funding this business, New York steals business from competing ports.

World War II and its post-period

  • After the United States entered the war in 1942 drums operations, Axis ace U- submarine forces launched attacks on merchant ships in the territorial waters of the United States, and thus began the second paragraph Happy Hour . The U-submarine commander distinguished the silhouette of the target ship through the backlight of the city lights and launched an attack, thus avoiding the US Navy in the harbor unharmed. The oil tanker Coimbria was sunk off Sandy Hook Peninsula and the Norness off Long Island. As the main escort transportation node in the United States, the Port of New York was an important military assembly transfer point in the Second Atlantic War. The death rate of US merchant mariners was 1/26, which was higher than that of other US military forces.
  • The port reached its peak of business in March 1943 during World War II. There were 543 vessels waiting to be berthed in the anchorage, waiting to be assigned to escort or berth (and there were 425 ocean-going vessels docked at some of the 750 piers). There are 1,100 warehouses with a total area of ​​nearly 1.5 square miles (3.9 square kilometers), 575 tugboats, and 39 docks (possibly important, the New York Naval Shipyard built in 1801) to provide services for freight. Because of the amazing inventory of heavy machinery, the Port of New York has become the busiest port in the world.


From the perspective of shipping, New York Harbor is a comprehensive system consisting of approximately 240 miles (386 kilometers) of waterways (pilot required), anchorages, and port facilities, centered on the upper New York Bay. Large cargo ships need the assistance of tugboats to complete turns at sharp bends in the channel, such as the sharp bend from Fancourt Channel into Newark Bay. The main entrance from the Atlantic Ocean to the harbor is located between Rockaway and Sandy Hook in the southeast; the other entrance is from the northeast through the Long Island Strait at the exit of the East River. The harbor extends southwest to the mouth of the Raritan River, northwest to Newark Harbor, and north to the George Washington Bridge. Other vehicle passages through the harbor include the PATH tunnel and the Verrazano Strait Bridge that crosses the New York Bay Strait.

The New York and New Jersey port facilities are the largest oil import terminals and the second largest container terminals in the United States Although the term New York Port has always alluded to the Port of New York that encompasses the five administrative regions and the adjacent New Jersey coastline, it was not until 1972 that they were placed under the administration of a single two-state port authority. Beginning in the 1950s, the container ship facilities of the Newark Port-Elizabeth Shipping Terminal in Newark Bay eclipsed the nearby commercial ports of Manhattan and Brooklyn, and it is also the largest container port on the East Coast. The importance of the port in passenger transportation has now declined, but the Port Authority also has jurisdiction over the three terminals at New York's Kennedy Airport , LaGuardia Airport and Newark Liberty Airport. New York City also has cruise lines, commuter ferries and sightseeing boat services. Recently, a new tourist facility opened at Red Tick in Brooklyn. Although most ferry services are private, the Staten Island Ferry is operated by the New York City Transportation Authority.


The combination of the ports of New York and New Jersey with airports makes it the second-most passenger area. The nearby Kennedy International Airport (JFK) air freight business and FedEx, the world's busiest cargo airline, use Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) as a regional hub, creating an integrated sea and air transportation route. JFK International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, Stewart International Airport, Teterboro Airport, and Lower Manhattan Airport are all operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. New Jersey) operations. At the same time, it is responsible for the management and operation of the Newark and JFK Airport Light Rail Link, the George Washington Bridge, the Lincoln Bridge, the Hulank Tunnel, and the Trans-Hudson River Light Rail. The Port Authority is a public institution shared by the two states with self-governance and independent taxation.

container terminal

The port has 4 container terminals, making it the first on the East Coast, the third in the United States, and the 20th busiest port in the world. The port is leased to different port operators, such as AP Moller-Maersk Group.

  • Howland Hook Marine Terminal
  • Port Jersey Marine Terminal
  • Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal (Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal), ranked first in the United States and the third busiest container terminal in the world
  • Brooklyn Red Hook Marine Terminal (Red Hook Marine Terminal)
Port of New York and New Jersey

In 2008, the cargo throughput of the ports of New York and New Jersey accounted for 14% of the total volume of US international ocean shipping . 176 cargo airlines and thousands of air freight forwarding service companies base in New York and New Jersey, providing services for multiple international direct freight routes. The Port Authority has maintained many years of cooperative relations with COSCO, China Shipping, Sinotrans, Air China, Eastern Airlines, China Cargo Airlines, China Southern Airlines, HNA, Yangtze River Express, Shanghai and other companies. The Port of New York handles approximately 3.2 million TEUs and 700,000 cars each year. In the first half of 2014, the port processed 1,583,449 TEUs. In June 2010, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey agreed to purchase 128 acres of land at the Bayonne Military Marine Terminal for the expansion of the port's container terminal.

Channel maintenance

The management responsibilities of the port are borne by the federal government to the municipal government. The port facilities are controlled by the two-state port authorities, but the depth control of the waterway is actually undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has been involved in port management since Congress passed a comprehensive law on rivers and seaports in 1826.

The natural water depth of New York Harbor is about 17 feet (5 meters), but the control water depth has been deepened to about 24 feet (7 meters) in 1880.

In 1891, the shallowest point of the main channel was 30 feet (9 meters). In 1914, the Anchorage Channel became the main entrance to the harbor. The channel was 40 feet (12 meters) deep and 2,000 feet (600 meters) wide. During World War II the channel was dredged to 45 feet (14 meters) to accommodate larger Panamax freighters. At present, the Engineering Corps has contracted out a dredging project to 50 feet (15 meters), which ensures that the channel can accommodate super-Panamax container ships, which can pass through the Suez Canal . The waterway connecting Newark Port's container handling facilities with the Atlantic Ocean has caused a series of environmental concerns. PCBs and other pollutants accumulate under the silt. In many areas, the sandy seabed has been dug to the surface of the rock and needs to be blasted. The dredging equipment then dug up gravel and discarded it elsewhere. In 2005, 70 dredging equipment was used for port digging operations here, and this is the largest dredging fleet in the world. Residents of Staten Island occasionally noticed noise and vibration from dredging operations. Excavation workers will warn local residents before blasting.

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Summary of USNYC

New York Harbor (Port Code:USNYC) is one of the world's largest natural harbors and the port has become the second busiest port by tonnage in the United States as of 2019, and the busiest on the East Coast. The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district of the New York-Newark metropolitan area, encompassing the region within approximately a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. It includes the system of navigable waterways in the New York–New Jersey Harbor Estuary, which runs along over 770 miles (1,240 km) of shoreline in the vicinity of New York City and northeastern New Jersey.
The port of New York and New Jersey is the major port on the East Coast, handling a diverse range of cargoes, including cruise ships, containers, Ro-Ro, bulk, break bulk, heavy lifts and petroleum products. Marine terminals are located throughout the harbour, most prominently along the Brooklyn waterfront in New York City and along the shores of Newark Bay in New Jersey. The port is one of the leading container centres in North America, with a total of 6 separate container terminals. It is also leading automobile import/export centre and is home to numerous petroleum terminals. Many of the general cargo facilities are owned and/or managed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
The port is the nation's top gateway for international flights and its busiest center for overall passenger and air freight flights. There are two foreign-trade zones (FTZ) within the port. The port consists of a complex of approximately 240 miles (386 km) of shipping channels, as well as anchorages and port facilities. Most vessels require pilotage, and larger vessels require tugboat assistance for the sharper channel turns.