Guangzhou (Port of Guangzhou) is located along the Pearl River in the urban area of Guangzhou, China, about 40 nautical miles away from Humen, the estuary of the Pearl River. It is the most important coastal and inland waterway transportation in mainland China. hub. Guangzhou Port has a long history. As early as 2,000 years ago, during the Qin and Han Dynasties, the ancient port of Guangzhou was an important port for China’s foreign trade and one of the starting points of the “Maritime Silk Road” in ancient China. In the Tang and Song Dynasties more than 1300 years ago, “Guangzhou Tonghai "Yidao" is the longest ocean route in the world; by the Qing Dynasty, foreign businessmen built some docks and warehouses on both banks of the South River Road and Guangzhou local owners along the East River Road Long Embankment. Guangzhou became China’s only foreign trade port and foreign trade port. The largest port: After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, it took over foreign-owned and privately-run wharfs and warehouses, and started to build the Huangsha Wharf.
During the first five-year plan, the small wharf along the Long Causeway was renovated. In the late 1950s, new air and Dongfeng loading and unloading operation areas and Lijiao and Yuancun wharves were built; the Henan and Fangcun loading and unloading areas and Hong Kong, Macao and coastal passenger stations were rebuilt and expanded. In December 1987, it merged with Huangpu Port and became the collective name of the former Guangzhou Port and Huangpu Port, which belonged to the newly formed Guangzhou Port Authority. It has become the third major container port in mainland China that has exceeded 10 million containers after Shanghai and Shenzhen ports. In 2012, Guangzhou Port had a cargo transport volume of 435 million tons, ranking fourth in the country and sixth in the world; container transport volume was 1,455 Ten thousand TEUs, ranking fourth in the country and seventh in the world, both main indicators rank among the top ten ports in the world.
Competitive Advantages of Guangzhou Port
- [Positive geographical location] Guangzhou Port is located at the Pearl River estuary and the center of the Pearl River Delta region where the foreign-oriented economy is most active in China. It is adjacent to the South China Sea, adjacent to Hong Kong and Macau, where the Dongjiang, Xijiang and Beijiang rivers flow into the sea. Through the Pearl River Delta water network, Guangzhou Port is connected to major cities in the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong and Macau, and the West River connects the southwestern region of my country, and is connected to my country’s coastal areas and ports around the world via the Lingdingyang Channel.
- [Good natural conditions] Guangzhou Port is located on the northern edge of the Pearl River Delta, with dense river networks and little water and sand; it is evergreen throughout the year and has a pleasant climate; it has abundant coastline resources and good conditions for port construction.
- Climate Guangzhou Port has a subtropical climate. At the southern edge of the Tropic of Cancer, the annual average temperature is 21.8 degrees Celsius; it is warm and rainy, with an average annual rainfall of about 1,720 mm, and there is no snow all year round; due to the adjustment of the maritime climate, from October to February each year The northerly wind blows, and the southeasterly and southerly winds blow in the rest of the month. There are occasional typhoons in the summer, but the wind force reaching Hong Kong is generally around 6-8; the average annual foggy days are 5 days; the annual average humidity is 79%.
- Runoff: The Pearl River has an average annual runoff of 326 billion m3 for many years, which enters the sea from Badakoumen. There are four entrances in the east along the sea route of Guangzhou Port.
- Tide: The waters of Guangzhou Port are irregular half-day mixed tides, with significant diurnal tides.
- Waves: It is difficult to generate large waves within Humen. After the waves from the open sea entered Humen, the wind and waves were small. The Nansha operation area in the northwest of Lingdingyang has wide open waters and low waves, so there is no need to consider protective structures.
- Sediment: The Pearl River Basin has beautiful mountains and green waters, good vegetation, and low sand content in the river water. The annual average sand content per cubic meter is 0.24 kg, and the annual average sand transport is 88.72 million tons, of which 80% enters the sea through 8 gates. The annual average sediment through Humen is 6.58 million tons, accounting for 7.4% of the total.
- Geology, geomorphology and earthquake Guangzhou Port is located in the alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta. The riverbed is the Quaternary alluvial overburden, followed by silt, sand, clay and loam, and the underlying weathered rocks of Tertiary sandstone and leaf rock . Weathered rock, leaf rock and weathered rock are interbedded with thin layers, which appear between -31 meters and -11 meters, respectively. The area where Hong Kong is located belongs to an area with a seismic intensity of 6 degrees.
Perfect infrastructure] The Guangzhou port area is divided into four major port areas: Inner Harbor, Huangpu, Xinsha and Nansha, and the Pearl River Estuary anchorage. It has a number of specialized deep-water terminals with advanced facilities for large containers, coal, grain, petroleum and chemical industries, as well as the largest ro-ro ship terminal in South China. By 2012, Guangzhou Port has 516 berths (including 23 buoys) for various types of production, including 66 berths of 10,000 tons and above; 88 anchorages with a maximum anchoring capacity of 300,000 tons.
Excellent conditions for collection and distribution] Guangzhou is a transportation hub in South China, with developed waterways, railways, highways and air transportation. It has formed a three-dimensional transportation network that radiates Southeast Asia and connects all parts of the world. In particular, the Pearl River Delta has criss-cross rivers, superior shipping resources, and unique shipping conditions with "direct river and sea access to Hong Kong and Macau": through the implementation of the first, second, and third phases of the sea channel project and channel widening project, the elevation of the bottom of the sea channel of Guangzhou Port is- It is 13.0 meters and effective width of 255 meters, which can satisfy 50,000-ton ships navigating in two directions by tide. At present, the navigable water depth of the channel from the Pearl River Estuary to the Nansha Port area has been dredged to a depth of -17 meters, which can meet the requirements of one-way navigation for 100,000-ton container ships without tides, and one-way navigation for 120,000-ton bulk carriers. 50,000-ton-class ships enter and exit Nansha Port Area in two-way navigation without tides.
The Pearl River Delta, where Guangzhou is located, has developed inland waterway navigation. At present, it has initially formed a waterway transportation network with a standard navigation channel of 1,000 tons and above as the backbone, and a four-level channel as the basis, with direct river and sea access to Hong Kong and Macau; and the southwestern provinces and regions. The connected inter-provincial navigation capacity has been greatly improved; the navigation conditions in the mountainous areas of eastern and northern Guangdong have also been greatly improved.
Number of service carriers and routes
There are currently 66 routes, 29 of which are internal routes, 4 African routes, 4 Australian routes, 4 Japanese routes, 1 South Korean routes, 6 American routes, 4 Middle East routes, and the rest are Mediterranean and Mediterranean routes. European line. At present, Guangzhou Port has reached more than 350 ports in more than 80 countries and regions in the world and more than 100 domestic ports.
ZIM, WANHAI/Wanhai, CMA/CMA CGM, MSC/Mediterranean Shipping, EVERGREEN/Evergreen Shipping, PIL/Taiping Shipping, MAERSK/Maersk, HYUNDAI/Hyundai Merchant Shipping, Hanjin Shipping/HANGJIN, NYK/Japan Post, CSCL/China Shipping Container Lines, KMTC/Korea Shipping, K.LINE/Kawasaki Steamship, MOL/MTL, COSCO/COSCO Container Lines, DELMAS/Damao, COSCO Pan Asia, Fuzhou Mingfa, Yangpu Zhongliang, Quanzhou Antong, Lixin, Haikou Port Container Line, Wenzhou Ruizhou, Telford, Yangpu Zhenghe, China Overseas Domestic Trade, Jiangsu Sinotrans, Tianjin Shipping TMS/Grand China Logistics. A total of 29.
Loading and unloading equipment includes various shore cranes, gantry cranes, container cranes, grain suction machines, filling machines, tire cranes, floating cranes and ro-ro facilities, among which the maximum lifting capacity of floating cranes is 250 tons. There is a special railway line directly to the terminal in the port area, which is 12km long. The terminal is the largest reliable ship of 35,000 dwt. Various types of ships of 150,000 deadweight tonnage can be berthed at the anchorage on Lantau Island. The warehouse area of Hong Kong reaches 960,000 m∧<2>. In June 1993, Guangzhou's first dedicated liquefied gas terminal was officially put into operation after acceptance. It has a 1000m∧<3> spherical storage tank, which can supply more than 50,000 tons of Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta region each year. Guangzhou Free Trade Zone is located in the Beiwei section of the Economic and Technological Development Zone, with a total area of 1.4km∧<2>. It is a specific area under the supervision of the customs and implemented a bonded system. It is also the first bonded zone in the country where a foreign-funded enterprise fully undertakes development and operation tasks. In 1994, the cargo throughput reached 71.16 million tons, ranking third in the country, an increase of 8.6% over 1993, the highest level in history. Among them, foreign trade cargo was about 30%. In 1994, the container throughput was 221,000 TEU, an increase over 1993. 17.6%. The main import and export goods include coal, cement, grain, petroleum, metal ore, chemical fertilizer, steel, mineral construction materials, pesticides, non-metallic ore and sundries. Among the four forms of collection and distribution of pipelines, railways, shipping, and highways, shipping accounts for the largest proportion, accounting for about 40%.
The Guangzhou Port Authority implements unified management of businesses within its jurisdiction. Main business: loading and unloading, warehousing and transportation of import and export goods (including containers) at home and abroad; bonded warehouse business for imported goods (including re-export trade goods); coastal ports across the country, Pearl River inland ports, Hong Kong and Macao routes water transportation; automobile transportation; lighter towing in the port ; Lifting, loading and unloading, etc. Concurrently operating: domestic and foreign cargo transportation agency and ship agency business, waterway, railway, and air transit, combined transportation; cargo import and export declaration business; foreign ship tally; foreign ship pilotage and transportation equipment manufacturing, etc.
The Inner Port Area is located in the West River, East River and South River Road within the original eight districts of Guangzhou, including Huangsha Wharf, Zhoutouzui Wharf, Dashatou Wharf, Guangzhou Shipyard, etc., mainly for energy in Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta region , Raw materials, grain, bulk cargo and container handling and passenger transportation services. In recent years, with the urban development of Guangzhou and the large-scale development of ship transportation, the port function of this port area has gradually weakened, and some freight terminals have gradually moved out or cancelled.
Huangpu Port Area is located on both sides of the Pearl River main stream in Huangpu District and Luogang District of Guangzhou City. It consists of the Huangpu Old Port Operation Area and the Huangpu New Port Operation Area. Jimei Wharf, Xingang Wharf, Fenglimiao Shipyard, Wenchong Shipyard, etc., are mainly responsible for coastal and offshore container transportation and bulk cargo transportation such as grain, coal, fertilizer, and refined oil. The Huangpu Old Port operation area is located on the north bank of the Huangpu Waterway, with a water depth of about 5-9 meters and navigable 10,000-ton ships, including the Huangpu Old Port Wharf, Hongshengsha Wharf, Sinotrans Huangpu Warehouse and Wharf Company Wharf and Huangpu Refrigeration Plant, etc. Its shoreline resources have been basically developed, and in the future it will mainly focus on functional adjustment and technological transformation.
Xinsha Port District
Xinsha Port Area is located in Dongguan City, on the east bank of the Pearl River’s main stream from Machong River Estuary to Poliu Sluice Section. It can navigate 50,000-ton ships by tide and is mainly transported by containers, coal, ore, grain, chemical fertilizers and automobiles. The comprehensive port area. The planned port coastline of the port area is 3.5 kilometers, and 2 kilometers are currently in use. It is one of the key port areas for the future development of Guangzhou Port.
Nansha Port Area
Nansha Port Area is located in Nansha District, Guangzhou City, on the west bank of the Shiziyang to Lingdingyang section of the main stream of the Pearl River. It is a comprehensive port area consisting of four operating areas including Shazai Island, Xiaohu, Luwan, and Nansha, including the Guangdong Petrochemical Terminal, Gangfa Petrochemical Terminal, Zhujiang Power Plant Terminal, Nansha New Passenger Terminal and Nansha Port Area Phase I Multi-purpose Terminal, etc. Among them, the Shazai Island operation area is mainly used for automobile roll-on and groceries transportation; the Xiaohu operation area is mainly for energy and liquid chemical transportation; the Luwan operation area is mainly for groceries transportation; the Nansha operation area is mainly for foreign trade container transportation. Develop functions such as bonded, logistics, and commerce, and undertake the transportation of bulk cargo in conjunction with the development of the port industry.