Amsterdam is located on the North Sea Canal (NOORDZEE KANAAL) on the western coast of the Netherlands (full name: THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHEERLANDS), about 10 nm-ile from the canal outlet IJMUIDEN. The ship lock of the Port of Ijmuiden communicates with the North Sea. It is the largest city and the second largest seaport in the Netherlands, and the largest cocoa loading and unloading port in the world. As early as the 12th century, it was a fishing village and was established as a city in 1206. From the 14th to 15th centuries, it became an important port in Europe due to trade with the East until the 17th century. Designated as the capital of the Netherlands in the 19th century, it is the political, economic and cultural center of the Netherlands. The industries mainly include shipbuilding, electronics, chemicals, steel, machinery, food and textiles. There is the most modern international airport in Europe. It is also a famous cultural and artistic city and tourist center in Europe. Like Venice, it is also a water city, known as the "Nordic Venice". The city is divided into more than 100 islands by more than 100 rivers, and more than 600 bridges connect it together, which has its own characteristics. The port is about 15km away from the airport. The port has a temperate maritime climate, with prevailing westerly winds and mild and humid. The annual average temperature is about 2℃, the highest is about 19℃, and the annual average rainfall is about 600mm. Due to the separation of ship locks, there is no tidal range in the harbor. The port has a water area of 618 hectares and a total wharf coastline of 23km. The main berths in the port area are as follows: wharf name berth (units) coastline length (m) maximum water depth (m) ─────── ── ─── ────── ───── WEST HAVEN 10 2174 15 SUEZ HAVEN 5 1108 10 VLOT HAVEN 10 2318 15 HANDELSKADE 8 1885 9.8 SUMATRAKADE 6 1383 9. 8SPOOR WEG 7 1504 11── ────46 10372 The loading and unloading equipment includes various shore cranes, portable cranes, grab cranes, high-speed portal cranes, heavy tower cranes, container cranes, floating cranes, and suction cranes. Lifting machine, screening machine and ro-ro facilities, etc. The high-speed gantry crane of the dry bulk terminal has a maximum lifting capacity of 50 tons and has an automatic counting system; there are also two sets of independent belt combined conveyors, using separate shore cranes, which can simultaneously carry out operations such as transfer and loading. The cocoa storage area is 200,000 m∧. The storage yard has a capacity of 3 million tons, and the loading from the yard is 2,000 tons per hour, and the phosphate fertilizer can be unloaded 7,000 tons per day. The grain terminal is the largest reliable ship of 100,000 deadweight tons, and the grain screening can screen and unload 800 tons per hour. The coal terminal can load and unload coal, coke, fine coke and coke powder, etc. It has a 16-ton floating crane and a 50-ton grab loading and unloading bridge, which can load and unload ships, barges and trains, and has the best waterways, roads and The railway transportation line can quickly and flexibly transport large and small batches of coal, with a daily loading and unloading capacity of up to 40,000 tons per day. The container crane at the container terminal has an extension span of 36m, and is equipped with a 12m distance adjuster (SPREADERS) that can lift two 20-foot containers at the same time; there is also a 45-ton railway mobile container crane with a rotating span of up to 40m, equipped with a swing range and adjustable stretcher, can serve 3 rails. The oil terminal has the largest reliable oil tanker of 100,000 deadweight tons, and has oil pipelines with a diameter of 152.4 to 203.2 mm, which can load and unload about 2,000 tons of crude oil per hour. The purpose of establishing bonded warehouses in Hong Kong is to win foreign businessmen to choose the Netherlands as a distribution center for exports to Europe, Asia, and Africa. Commodities entering the zone are exempt from import tax. Commodities stored in the warehouse can be simply packaged, sample exhibition and test purposes, and they can also be used for assembly of parts. The various preferential conditions for tariff reduction and exemption and the provision of re-exports implemented by special zones of various countries in the world are also available in bonded warehouses. The port directly relies on the lock system of the North Sea Canal and Ijmuiden Port, and it takes more than 24 hours to pass the lock once. The road, rail and waterway transportation between the port area and the European interior is very convenient, and there is Schiphol Airport nearby. The cargo throughput in 1994 was 48.1 million tons, of which dry bulk such as grains increased significantly by about 60%, and the annual cocoa handling capacity exceeded 500,000 tons. In 1993, the container throughput was 73,000 TEU, an increase of 2. 4%. The main imported goods are grains, ore, coal, fertilizers, crude oil, cocoa powder, coffee, paper, machinery, chemicals and groceries, etc. The export goods include coke, oil, wheat, fertilizer, metal utensils, transportation equipment, chemical products, and meat. And daily necessities. If you need to work during holidays, overtime pay shall be paid. In order to adapt to the increasing demand for cargo transportation, the port authorities have started construction of an international multimodal transportation center for port production since the spring of 1993. It is located in the western part of the port, covering an area of 65 hectares, with a 1000m long deep-water wharf and facilities for loading and unloading ro-ro ships. A 300,000 m∧ open-air storage yard and office building will be built in the center, and the railway network of the port area will be laid. It has perfect warehousing functions, equipped with trucks and container loading and unloading equipment. It can provide shipping companies and transportation companies with convenience in storage, transshipment and transportation. The construction of the intermodal center reflects the new strategy of the Port of Amsterdam to develop the port.