The Port of Hamburg (German Hamburger Hafen) is located on the right bank of the lower reaches of the Elbe in northern Germany (latitude and longitude: 53°33′N, 009°59′E#), which is far from the North Sea It is 110 kilometers from the sea and borders Helgoland (HELGO-LANDER) Bay. It is the largest port in Germany and the second largest container port in Europe. Port nature: river port, free port, basic port (C, M)#
The Port of Hamburg was founded on May 7, 1189. It has a history of more than 800 years and has developed into the world's largest free port. In the center of the free port is the world's largest storage city with an area of 500,000 square meters. At the same time, it is different from other seaports in that it is located in the center of the European market of the European Community, the European Free Trade Association and the Economic Mutual Association, making it the most important transit seaport in Europe. It is an important railway and aviation hub in Germany. The urban area crosses the banks of the Elbe River, and the city has vertical and horizontal rivers, multiple bridges, and cross tunnels at the bottom of the Elbe River. Developed in industry and commerce, it is the center of Germany's shipbuilding industry. In addition to shipbuilding, the main industries include electronics, petroleum refining, metallurgy, machinery, chemicals, rubber and food.
The port is about 15km away from the airport . The port has a temperate maritime climate, with more westerly winds throughout the year, mild and humid, and more rain in winter. The lowest annual average temperature is -4℃ in January, and the highest is 20℃ in July. The annual average rainfall is about 800mm. The average tidal range is 2.8m.
The total area of Hamburg is 91 square kilometers, of which the land is 44km square kilometers, the water area is 31km square kilometers, and the other 16 square kilometers is a free port zone.
Loading and unloading equipment includes various shore cranes, bridge cranes, portable cranes, grab cranes, truck cranes, floating cranes, suction lifts, conveyor belts, forklifts and ro-ro facilities, among which the maximum lifting capacity of the floating cranes is 1200 Ton. The efficiency of the suction machine to load and unload grain is 1,300 tons per hour. There is a super-Panamax container loading and unloading bridge at Europa Container Terminal , with a load of 80 tons. The boom extends to 48m outside the shore railway and can extend 23.5m inwardly. When the lifting height is 31m, the lifting load is 68 tons. The open-air cargo yard on the wharf is 820,000 square meters, the cargo shed is 1.05 million square meters (there is another 120,000 square meters with adjustable temperature), the total oil depot is 3.8 million tons, and the granary capacity is 740,000 tons. The large ship anchorage on the Elbe has a water depth of 36m and can berth very large tankers. The port not only has advanced equipment, mechanization and high degree of automation, but it is also known as "Germany's gateway to the world" and "Europe's fastest transshipment port".
The Port of Hamburg has nearly 300 routes to the five continents of the world and maintains contact with more than 1,100 ports in the world. There are more than 18,000 ships entering and leaving the port every year. The railway line runs through all the terminals, and the carriages and ships can be directly loaded and unloaded. As an important transit port in Europe, the port has a broad, rapid and economical capacity to reach various inland countries. Hamburg is the world's largest free port. Most of the transit goods pass through the free port, providing the world's largest duty-free area within a 16k square meter area. The warehouse area is 600,000 square meters, and the cargo shed area is 760,000 square meters. The customs does not inspect the declared goods and does not levy customs duties. The local customs inspect and collect taxes only after the goods arrive at the destination. This is very attractive to shippers. After some goods enter the Hamburg Freeport Zone, the owner can reduce the price and negotiate business with customers without taking the goods. There is no stipulation on the storage period of goods in the free port zone, as long as the storage fee and loading and unloading fee are paid as required.
The main imported goods at the Port of Hamburg are coal, timber, ore, crude oil, cotton, grains, fruits, wool, tobacco, vegetable oil, ice meat, protein, rubber, coffee, cocoa and groceries, etc. The main export goods are coke, cement, steel , Machinery and parts, vehicles, electrical supplies, petroleum, artificial fertilizers, sugar, salt, grain, magnets, glassware, paper and chemicals, etc. In 1994, the cargo throughput reached 68.32 million tons, an increase of 3.8% over 1993, a record high. The container throughput in 1994 was 2.725 million TEU, an increase of 9.6% over 1993. The port's special inspections, general repairs, temporary repairs, and dock repairs can all be resolved. There are 21 floating docks with a lifting capacity of 130,000 dwt. The dry dock can accommodate ships with a maximum of 320,000 dwt. During holidays, except for New Year's Day, International Labor Day (May 1), and Christmas (December 25), assignments can be arranged.
At present, the Port of Hamburg has established Europe's first-class port intelligence system-DAKOSY (Data Communication System). The system can not only exchange data in the port, but also can be used for cooperation among various transportation means, and it is a means for cargo owners to choose the best transportation plan. The future plan is to connect all walks of life and customers related to Hamburg into a data network, which will be fully networked with Deutsche Bahn to improve the transportation of railway goods; and the customs will be networked for computer input for customs declaration and other matters. In order to adapt to the development of container transportation, the city of Hamburg recently announced plans to develop a 2.5 million square meter new container handling area in Altenwerder. There are a total of 4 container terminals, each with a coastline of about 350m. By 1995, it is predicted that the container throughput of the Port of Hamburg will reach 3.2 million TEU. By the 21st century, the Port of Hamburg will become the center of the large European economic circle. It is estimated that the cargo throughput of this port area in 2000 will reach 120 million tons, and the container throughput will reach 4 million TEU.